Category Archives: Competition Law

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Vertical Agreements: Permitted Passive Sales and Public Procurement in the EU

Under EU competition law, it is allowed in most vertical agreements to grant distributors exclusivity for a territory or customer group. Selective distribution is the well-known exception, where no geographic restrictions may be imposed on any level in the selective network. The EU’s Vertical Block Exemption Regulation (VBER) allows suppliers to restrict active sales by … Continue Reading

Commercial Agents: The Risks of Non-Control

Enterprises in a wide range of markets and industries have long used commercial agents to solicit business, collect payments, and take care of local matters. Such agents are hired for their local or market expertise and to deal with issues that exporting or importing enterprises cannot easily handle from their headquarters. Economically and legally, they … Continue Reading

Can 1 Mistake Result in 2 (Expensive) Infringements?

Mergers or other transactions that bring about change-of-control over businesses with an impact on the relevant markets (“concentrations”) in the European Union, when exceeding the relevant national or EU merger-filing thresholds, require prior notification to and a review by the relevant national authority or with the European Commission (the Commission). Failure to notify such planned … Continue Reading

Dutch Franchise Code Triggers Legislation, but Will That Solve the Issues That Triggered the Code?

The Dutch franchise code was drafted with the goal of becoming an industry-wide accepted code of conduct. Based on the well-known governance principle of “comply or explain,” the code offered both franchisors and franchisees an opportunity to carefully consider the inclusion of any contract clause that deviates from its standards. Although this system has worked … Continue Reading
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